Advanced Studies Diploma in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

Doctoral Degree Programme Details
The subjects lectured are described in the pages below.

Advanced Analysis of Marine Structures
Lecturer: Prof. Yordan Garbatov
Objectives:
To analyze structural components of ship hull structures using advanced methods. To know how to analyse structural response due to stochastic transient loads.
Programme:
Review the concepts of finite element methods. Modelling and analysis of reinforced panels of ship hull. Structural and load symmetry of ship. Modelling and structural analysis of a global ship hull. Application of super-elements in the analysis of ship hull modules. Sub-modelling techniques for ship hull. Dynamic analysis of ship structures based on the finite element method. Analysis of vibration modes of ship hull. Response analysis of ship hulls to transient loading.
Bibliography:
 • Bishop, R.E.D., Price, W.G., 1979, Hydroelasticity of Ships , Cambridge University Press
 • Hughes, O. F., 1983, Ship Structural Design: A Rationally Based, Computer-Aided, Optimisation Approach , J. Wiley& Sons
 • Petyt, M., 1990, Introduction to finite element vibration analysis, Cambridge Univ.
 • Zienkiewicz, O.C., Taylor, R.L., The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science , 4th ed., vols. 1 and 2, McGraw-Hill

Dynamics and Control of Ocean Vehicles
Lecturer: Prof. Serge Sutulo
Objectives:
To deepen understanding of dynamic properties of ships and other marine craft on the basis of analytic mechanics and theory of dynamic systems. To expose comparative analysis of various control tasks and methods of solution and synthesis.
Programme:
A ship or a marine craft as a system. Selected topics of analytic mechanics. Constraints. Generalized coordinates and velocities and quasi-velocities. Rigid and elastic ship models. The Lagrange equations of the first and second kind. The Appel equations. The Kirchhof–Tomson–Taite equations. Free surface as a non-holonomic constraint. Variational principles. Memory effects. General form of the equations of motion of a ship or submersible. representation of hydrodynamic forces. Linearizable and non-linearizable cases.
Marine craft treated as an abstract dynamic system. State variables, trajectories in the state space, phase portraits. Stability of motion: global and local stability, attractors, separating surfaces. Stability at a finite time interval, practical stability.
Control objectives. Control in navigation, guidance and manoeuvring. Feedforward and feedback control. Controllability and observability of systems. Full-state linear feedback control: pole placement method, LQG and control. Optimal control: general statement, types of cost functionals. Pontryagin’s maximum principle and Bellmann’s equation. State-space synthesis method for time-optimal control. Quasi-optimal control laws in course changing manoeuvre. Review of navigation and guidance problems and corresponding solution methods.
Bibliography:
 • Lurie, A. I., 2002, Analytical Mechanics. Springer Verlag.
 • Lewandowski, E. M., 2004, Dynamics of marine craft: maneuvering and seakeeping. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
 • Lamb, H., 1968, Hydrodynamics. Dover Pub.
 • Friedland, B., 1986, Control System Design: An Introduction to State-Space Method. McGraw-Hill Publ.Co.
 • Fossen, T. I., 1994, Guidance and Control of OceanVehicles. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
 • Arnold, V. I., 1989, Mathematical methods of classical mechanics. Springer.
 • Perez, T., 2005, Ship Motion Control, Springer
 • Kirk, D.E., 2004, Optimal Control Theory: an Introduction, Dover Publications, Mineola, N.Y.

Advanced Analysis of Ship Dynamics
Lecturer: Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares
Objectives:
The seakeeping potential theory is analyzed in detail, thus the student will be prepared to understand and work with different theoretical and numerical methods of seakeeping. The objective is to calculate the ship responses in regular and irregular waves, including: absolute motions, relative motion, accelerations, hydrodynamic pressures and structural loads.
Programme:
Seakeeping: Formulation of the seakeeping hydrodynamic problem; Linearization of the hydrodynamic problem. Frequency domain solution, radiation forces, exciting forces, restoring forces, equation of motions and structural loads; Comparison of different seakeeping methods; Computational methods to calculate the 2D and 3D hydrodynamic coefficients; Nonlinear roll damping. Ship responses to irregular waves: characteristics and representation of irregular seastates, ocean wave data, parametric seastate spectra, ship responses to irregular waves, statistics of maxima; Assessment of ship performance in waves.
Bibliography:
 • Faltinsen, O., 1990, Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures, Cambridge University Press
 • Lewis, E.V. (editor), 1989, Principles of Naval Architecture, Vol. III. Motions in Waves and Controllability, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

Advanced Design of Marine Structures
Lecturer: Prof. Yordan Garbatov and Prof. José M. Gordo
Objectives:
To know how to design ship hull structures for fatigue and ultimate strength. To be familiar with fatigue and structural design based on existing guidelines accounting for ultimate strength.
Programme:
Definition of long-term distributions of wave-induced fatigue loading and other cyclic loads. Calculation of local stresses and stress concentration factors. Calculation methods for the lifetime of components subjected to cyclic loads. Fatigue design of welded joints. Non-linear behaviour of beams, columns and plates subjected to combined and compression loads. Structural instability, maximum and residual strength of components and of the primary ship structure. Design of structural components subjected to compression loads.
Bibliography:
 • Almar-Naess, A., 1985, Fatigue Handbook for Offshore Steel Structures, Tapir
 • Hughes, O. F., 1983, Ship Structural Design: A Rationally-Based, Computer-Aided, Optimisation Approach, New York: John Wiley and Sons
 • Reis, A. and Camotim, D., 2000, Structural Stability (in Portuguese), McGraw-Hill

Modelling and Analysis of Sea Waves
Lecturer: Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares
Objectives:
To know the mechanisms of interaction of the Atmosphere with the Ocean, in matter in its effect of generation of marine waves of surface. To know the numeric models of representation of the generation process and propagation of wind vacancies. To know the probabilistic models that may describe the wind vacancies and the methods of analysis of wave records.
Programme:
Theory of surface waves. Stochastic and spectral models of gravity waves. Physical mechanisms of generating waves induced by wind and the evolution of the wave system. Wave interaction, dissipation of wave energy in the surface processes and on the friction of the sea bottom. Fetch and wave growth laws. Effects of non-stationary wind fields. Numerical modelling of waves. Applications for hindcast and forecast. Principles of data assimilation. Methods of analysis of wave records. Methods of estimation of scalar and directional spectra. Probabilistic models to describe the short term and the long term variability.
Bibliography:
 • Young, I. R.,1999, Wind Generated Ocean Waves, Elsevier
 • Komen, G. J. et al, 1994, Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves, Cambridge University
 • Massel, S., 1996, Ocean Surface Waves: Their Physics and Prediction, World Scientific
 • Ochi, M.K., 1998, Ocean Waves the Stochastic Approach, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge
 • Goda, Y., 2000, Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures, World Scientific, Singapore

Advanced Topics in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering
Lecturer: Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares
Objectives:
Acquire deep knowledge about a specific topic through a guided individual study.
Programme:
Develop an individual study involving the application of concepts and methods particular to the study of a specific problem. The topic of the work will be defined by the supervisor with the agreement of the coordinator of the Doctoral Programme. The student will write a report with the description of the state-of-the-art, the formulation of the problem to be studied, the methodology to solve it and the results of the analysis and studies made. The report should also be presented orally.
Bibliography:
 • Emden, J. Van and Easteal, J., 1996, Technical Writing and Speaking ? An Introduction, The McGraw-Hill Companies
 • Kirkman, J., 1997, Guidelines for giving Effective Presentations, Ramsbury Books

Research Seminar
Lecturer: Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares
Objectives:
Study of the research methodology and the bibliographic search, plan and execution of the research activities and writing and presentation of the report.
Programme:
The student should choose a topic on which he will write a report with the description of the state-of-the-art, the proposal of the topic to be researched and the methodology to solve it. The topic chosen will in general be the one that will be further developed in the PhD dissertation. The report should also be presented orally as a seminar.
Bibliography:
 • Emden, J. Van and Easteal, J., 1996, Technical Writing and Speaking ? An Introduction, The McGraw-Hill Companies
 • Kirkman, J., 1997, Guidelines for giving Effective Presentations, Ramsbury Books

Risk Assessment
Lecturer: Prof. C. Guedes Soares and Prof. Ângelo Teixeira
Objectives:
To introduce the methods for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis. To students should be able to represent and analyze complex systems with the quantitative methods and also to use Bayesian Networks as a decision supporting tool.
Programme:
Definition and quantification of risk. Methodology for the analysis and management of risks. Qualitative aspects of risk analysis. Preliminary hazard identification. Method of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP). Management oversight risk tree (MORT) and Safety management organization review technique (SMORT). Systems analysis and construction of fault-trees. Quantification of systems analysis. Reliability block diagrams and event tree analysis. Quantification of risk in systems with dependent events. Quantification of the importance of the components of a system. Barriers analysis Methods for quantification of the uncertainty of parameters. Introduction to Bayesian Networks. Bayesian decision theory. Influence diagrams and decision trees. Uncertainty in decision. Bayesian Networks in risk analysis. Applications of Bayesian Networks. Analysis and quantification of human errors. Consequence analysis: material losses and lost of human lives. Risk control methods. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. Risk acceptance criteria. Risk perception and risk aversion.
Bibliography:
 • Aven, T., 2003, Foundations of Risk Analysis, Wiley
 • Bedford, T. and Cooke, R., 2001, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, Foundations and Methods, Cambridge University Press
 • Ayyub, B.M., 2003, Risk Analysis in Engineering and Economics, Chapman & Hall
 • Jensen, F. V., 1996, Introduction to Bayesian Networks, UCL Press
 • Kirwan, B., 1994, A Guide to Practical Human Reliability Assessment, Taylor & Francis
 • Firschhoff, B. et al, 1981, Acceptable Risk, Cambridge University Press

Systems Reliability
Lecturer: Prof. C. Guedes Soares and Prof. Ângelo Teixeira
Objectives:
To provide the knowledge on component and system reliability. To provide students with proven methods and techniques for analyzing and developing reliable systems.
Programme:
Introduction to basic concepts of component and system reliability. Reliability theory. Random variables and probabilistic models of components and systems. Reliability of components. Failure rate, Bathtub curve and probabilistic models for components reliability. Probabilistic models for constant and time-dependent failure rates. Data collection and analysis. Probabilistic modelling based on data. Lifetime Analysis. Introduction to Structural reliability. System reliability. Qualitative analysis of systems. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Fault tree and event tree analysis. Systems modelling and analysis. Reliability of series, parallel and combined systems. Design of system with active and standby redundancy. Redundancy limitations. Multiply redundant systems (1/N and m/N redundancy). Redundancy allocation.
Bibliography:
 • Lewis, E. E., 1996, Introduction to Reliability Engineering, John Wiley & Sons
 • Arnljot, H. and Rausand, M., 1994, Systems Reliability Theory, John Wiley & Sons
 • Ang, H-S. and Tang, W.H., 1984, Probabilistic Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design, Vol. 2: Decision, Risk and Reliability, J. Wiley

Uncertainty Modelling
Lecturer: Prof. C. Guedes Soares and Prof. Ângelo Teixeira
Objectives:
To provide the student with the basic knowledge for uncertainty modeling. To introduce the available methods for propagation and uncertainty analysis. To provide the students with methods for combining different types of uncertainty.
Programme
Modelling uncertainty and variability: Types of uncertainty, Different interpretations of the probability. Descriptive statistics of samples. Histograms and analytical probability distribution functions. Estimation an model building from data: Methods of moments, Probability plots, Method of maximum likelihood, Bayesian estimation methods. Tests of fit. Propagation and uncertainty analysis of the response of engineering systems based on the variability or uncertainty of the inputs. Analytical methods and Sampling (statistical) methods. First Order Second Moment Methods and Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. Variance reduction techniques in Monte-Carlo of simulation. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models. Introduction to Bayesian Networks. Bayesian decision theory. Influence diagrams and decision trees. Uncertainty in decision. Bayesian Network modeling.
Bibliography:
 • Benjamin, J. R. and Cornell, C. A., 1970, Probability, Statistics and Decision for Civil Engineers, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York
 • Ang, H-S. and Tang, W.H., 1975, Probabilistic Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design, Vol. 1: Basic Principles, J. Wiley
 • Bedford, T. and Cooke, R., 2001, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, Foundations and Methods, Cambridge University Press
 • Ayyub, B.M., 2001, Elicitation of Expert Opinions for Uncertainty and Risks, CRC Press
 • Marseguerra, M. and Zio, E., 2004, Basics of Monte Carlo Method with Application to System Reliability, LiLoLe Verlag,
 • Saltelli, S. Tarantola, Campolongo, F., Rato, M., 2004, Sensitivity Analysis in Practice, Wiley
 • Morgan M. G. and Henriou, M., 1990, Uncertainty, Cambridge University Press

Systems Maintainability and Dependability
Lecturer: Prof. C. Guedes Soares and Prof. Ângelo Teixeira
Objectives:
To provide the students with knowledge on the methods to analyze the maintainability and the availability of systems.
Programme:
Introduction to availability of maintained components and systems. Maintainability. Probabilistic models of repairable systems. Reliability of maintained systems. Availability. Availability of systems using the Markov Chain approach. Analysis and modelling of dynamic systems using Petri-Nets. Statistical analysis of failure data. Identification of the distributions of time to failure and duration of repair. Failure tests. Maintenance policies. Models of maintenance costs. Simulation methods for the study of the effects of the maintenance policies.
Bibliography:
 • Lewis, E., 1996, Introduction to Reliability Engineering, John Wiley & Sons
 • Ascher, H., Feingold, H., 1984, Repairable Systems Reliability, Marcel Dekker
 • Ebeling, C. E., 1997, An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering, McGraw-Hill Int. Editions
 • Blanchart, B. S., Verma, D. and Petersen, E. L., 1995, Maintainability, John Wiley & Sons
Risk Based Maintenance
Lecturer: Prof. Yordan Garbatov and Prof. Carlos Guedes Soares
Objectives:
To provide knowledge on the risks involved in the decisions about maintenance planning and execution based on inspection or condition monitoring of the systems.
Programme:
Formulation of maintenance decisions: maintenance, repair, replacement, condition monitoring. Reliability Centered Maintenance. Replacement policies. Spare parts planning. Inspections. Inspection and condition monitoring procedures and optimization. Models of maintenance costs. Costs associated with the different maintenance policies. Life-cycle costs minimization. Maintenance organization and resources planning.
Bibliography:
 • Blanchart, B. S., Verma, D. and Petersen, E. L., 1995, Maintainability, John Wiley & Sons
 • Jardine, A. K. S. and Tsang, A.H.C., 2006, Maintenance, Replacement and Reliability, CRC Press
 • Mobley, R. K., 2002, An Introduction to Predictive Maintenance, Butterworth-Heinemann
 • Moubray, J., 1995, Reliability Centred Maintenance, Butterworth Heinemann

Structural Safety
Lecturer: Prof. C. Guedes Soares and Prof. Ângelo Teixeira
Objectives
The students should be able to formulate and solve structural reliability problems and to assess the partial safety factors included in the probabilistic design of ship structures.
Programme
Introduction to structural reliability: structural safety, uncertainties, limits states. Modelling uncertainty and variability. Probabilistic modelling of induced loads and ultimate strength of ship structures. Stochastic load models; load combination. Formulation of structural component reliability: First-order reliability method (FORM); reliability sensitivity measures; the second-order reliability method (SORM). Simulation methods: generation of random numbers; Monte Carlo, importance sampling, and directional simulation methods for structural reliability evaluation. System reliability: classification of systems; review of classical systems reliability methods; bounds on the reliability of series systems; approximate methods for non-series systems. Probabilistic design; codified design formats; partial factor design code format.
Bibliography:
 • Ferry Borges, J. and Castanheta, M., 1971, Structural Safety, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, 2nd Edition
 • Thoft-Christensen, P. and Baker, M. J., 1982, Structural Reliability Theory and its Applications, Springer-Verlag
 • Melchers, R. E., 1999, Structural Reliability, Analysis and Prediction, 2nd Edition John Wiley & Sons
 • Guedes Soares, C. (Ed.), 1997, Probabilistic Methods for Structural Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers; Dordrecht