Xu, H. T.; Oliveira, P., and Guedes Soares, C. (2021), “L1 adaptive backstepping control for path-following of underactuated marine surface ships”, European Journal of Control, Vol. 58, pp. 357-372.

A L1 adaptive backstepping controller is proposed for path-following control of an underactuated ship based on a nonlinear steering model, and the control law is derived using Lypunov control function. L1 adaptive controller is a novel technology considering both the robustness and fast adaptation. The closed-loop control system is proved to be uniformly global asymptotically stable. A novel guidance law, time-varying vector field, is proposed for the guidance system. The kinematic analysis of path-following shows that the guidance and control systems are coupled, and the guidance system is affected by the performance of the controller. The Lyapunov method is employed to show that the equilibrium point of the whole system is uniformly global asymptotically stable. Path-following simulations are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed control law and vector field guidance law using a fully nonlinear manoeuvring mode of an underactuated tanker in the presence of stochastic ocean current.

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