Santos, T.A. and Guedes Soares, C. (2020), “Assessment of transportation demand on alternative short-sea shipping services considering external costs”, Maritime Supply Chains, Vanelslander, T. & Sys, C. (Eds.), Elsevier, pp. 13-45

Amain policy guideline of European Union (EU) transport policy has been for many years the promotion of intermodality and the use of other transport modes instead of the roadmode (see EuropeanCommission, 1992, 1995, 1999). More recently, a roadmap toward a single European transport area has been outlined by the European Commission (2011) with great emphasis on the competitiveness and sustainability of the transport system, namely, setting a 60% GHG emission reduction target. These objectives, generally, may be achieved using rail and waterborne transport modes, which include short-sea shipping (SSS) and inland waterways (IWW), as mentioned in EuropeanCommission (2011). In this chapter, the definition of SSS is that originally given in European Commission (1999): “Short-sea shipping” means the movement of cargo and passengers by sea between ports situated in geographical Europe or between those ports and ports situated in non-European countries having a coastline on the enclosed seas bordering Europe. Most periphery countries in the EU do not have rail and IWW networks as developed as those in Central Europe and their networks are not effectively connected to Central Europe. For such countries, SSS remains a viable alternative to road transportation, allowing an adequate and uniform implementation of EU policies. Furthermore, these countries are often located far away from the core regions of Europe and shipping is, in comparison with road, cost and time competitive over longer distances. Thus, SSS could have a more prominent position in the achievement of the overall objectives of EU policies: promoting a European Single Market, reducing GHG emissions, and promoting intermodality.

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